This says lots of things about group behavior and what we want to believe and who we choose to believe
This article has some merit, but it misses badly in a few areas. One of the reasons the old studies made it into texts was because the statistics necessary to appropriately analyze the data had not yet been designed. Others got into books because they were exciting and compelling. Any individual study can be supported or not supported by future replications.
Another big problem is the time it takes from turning in a book manuscript to a publisher and the publication date. It's usually about two plus years. Add that to the time it took to write the book and they are always out of date ON the publication date. As a textbook author in social psychology and professor, I can tell you it's really frustrating. I just would go through and point out the problems with the studies.
As for whether or not psychology is a science -- a science is defined by its methods, not its subject matter. Because you are working with people you need hundreds of participants in studies and sophisticated statistics to help determine whether the hypothesis (or hypotheses) are supported. Nothing is proven with one study. Over time you get a preponderance of the results either supporting the hypotheses or failing to support. It's an ongoing cycle.
I have a skeptical notion about that article! I have always understood the social sciences, to be ‘in-exact sciences,’ so information for them, is always evolving. I have a faint rememberence on these studies and many many more (details foggy now). To me they are just a ‘point,’ in time and I leave myself open for whatever the next studies show. That article took too many studies and down played them, when they are only a starting point and I can’t believe all were somehow bogus! They were however, specific individual’s perspectives! Everybody has one!
If you think about it from a psychological warfare perspective more comes into focus. If you want to be the biggest bully on the block psyops is the way to go. Gaslighting, driving people crazy works. Somewhere along the way someone decided to fight fire with fire (instead of water Duh) so now we have healers using mental flame throwers as medicine, and sure it actually works in most cases. I started outlining a book 2 years ago called Memory Topography I doubt I will ever finish, not enough interest, that would supplant psychology while incorporating some of it's terminology to help illustrate actual processes between the will and biochemistry.
Imagined orders: money - corporations - government - religion
The imagined order is an inter-subjective order that exists in the shared imagination of millions of people. Things like any monetary system, the idea of human rights, or the United States of America itself exist as inter-subjective realities.
The imagined order shapes our deepest desires, how we view ourselves and world around us. We believe the fictional realities of our culture because we are born into it. “If you don’t think your money is real, give it to me.” Well yes, but it is only useful because of the inter-subjective belief of all of the other people within the system.
The imagined order is embedded not only in the desires of a single person, but of countless people. It is an inter-subjective order that exists in the shared imagination of millions of people, but it probably started with the coming together of related tribal groups of humans in places like Göbekli Tepe, Turkey. Creating large shared fictional realities resulted in rapid innovation of social behavior resulting in, or related to, the development of agriculture and towns and cities.
The vast information capacity of human language seems to have evolved so that we could talk about other humans (i.e. gossip) and to screen potential mates for intelligence. Sexual selection is a driving force for quick changes in species. The guy who could sweet talk the most smart females into having sex with him got to pass on his genes.
People find it difficult to understand the idea of ‘imagined orders’ because they assume that there are only two types of realities; objective realities, and subjective realities. In fact humans have evolved to create intersubjective orders based on their beliefs.