"A quasar is a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy, wrapped in a bright disk of material. The most distant quasar now known is J0313-1806 (illustrated), which dates back to when the universe was a mere 670 million years old."
In J0313-1806's formation, did the gargantuan seed black hole form through the direct collapse of vast amounts of primordial hydrogen gas, or did J0313-1806’s seed start out small, forming through stellar collapse, or some other process?
Edwin Hubble hypothesized two universes, the first of them expanding.
*If the red shifts are a Doppler shift . . . the observations as they stand lead to the anomaly of a closed universe, curiously small and dense, and, it may be added, suspiciously young.
On the other hand, if red shifts are not Doppler effects, these anomalies disappear and the region observed appears as a small, homogeneous, but insignificant portion of a universe extended indefinitely in both space and time.*
Source (written years later): E. Hubble, 1937 Royal Astronomical Society Monthly Notices.
What if anything do you conclude?
BTW, I choose #3. Neither of the above.
Most likely the massive galactic black holes never experienced a period of actual stellar activity. They formed with the first generation hydrogen giant stars that only lasted tens of thousands of years at most before nova/super nova.
Such stars are long extinct now, not even represented on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram of main sequence stellar evolution.