The Big Bounce has challenged the Big Bang!
If correct, the universe is eternal-- it was never created (by 'god' or in any other way) and will never end, but instead go on forever, in a neverending cycle of expansions and contractions.
Yes, the universe must exist throughout the infinite past, and will continue to exist infinitely into the future. This must be true, because matter and energy do not emerge from nothing. Nor do they disappear into nothing. They may change in form, but they exist throughout infinite time.
I read the article and find it to be interesting but wanting. If I understand what they are proposing then the Universe expands and contracts over time and does this on a schedule. Research does not bare this out. The math says that there was an event, that cannot be described mathematically, that allows for the Universe to have started from a point, from that point all expanded to ultimately become what we see today. I will give them that this point may have resulted from a previous expansion and contraction, bu there is no proof of this and if one thinks about it this kind of makes no sense. There was a concept in Einsteins math that tells us there is a cosmological constant for the expansion of the Universe. This constant can either be positive, negative, or zero. It has been found to be positive and it has also been found to not be constant but increasing. So if it is increasingly positive it is hard to see how the Universe comes back together to bounce again. So the data is showing us that the Universe is expanding and will continue to do so, unless there is some mechanism where the Universe comes to a limit (controlled or influenced by ?) and then defies all data and starts to contract. I liken this to spilling a gallon of milk on the floor and wanting it to go back into the jug without some outside influence. Now there may be a large vacuum cleaner in the sky to provide for this event but there is no evidence for even a theory of this, much less evidence for why there would be one. So one has to clean up the mess or want for it to solidify and walk over it. As for the Vedic writings, they are great at figuring things out, as in doing math fast, but that is provable and I think they are much like the Bible in that there is some truth there, but it may not be where one thinks it is. Just because a religious text states something does not mean it is correct necessarily.
The Universe has always been here, and always will be. The Big Bang and Big Bounce are both wrong. Some scientist are trying so hard to discover how the Universe started - but they never will - because there wasn't one.
The Universe must be understood logically, theories and telescopes won't help you.
From what I have read about modern physics and the metaphysical implications, the universe is best described with a tenseless theory of time (colloquially "B-theory" as opposed to the tensed "A-theory" ). Thought experiments (that are really just extensions of our observations) like those relating to simultaneity CANNOT be explained by a tensed theory of time, since the actual sequence of events must necessarily be different for different reference frames. The implication here is that that the big bang inflationary model only describes a temporal boundary, not an "event" occurring.
I wrote about it in college in a paper critiquing William Lane Craig's formulation of the Deductive Argument from Contingency:
My problem with The Big Bounce is that it postulates that the universe always was, and always will be. Evangelicals say the exact same thing about God. I can't buy into that in regards to God, and I can't buy into it in regards to the universe, either. Just one man's opinion.
The big bounce sounds sensible to me, because, it takes us away from trying to imagine or understand a "singularity."
But I feel this is a good time and place to present my ideas about the universe:
So, all these chunks of matter, with their entropy and their gravity,
they move away from each other, in certain situations, because of their entropy,
and they move closer to each other, in other situations, because of their gravity.
If these chunks of matter, such as galaxies, are moving away from each other, and their speed is accelerating, that is the entropy at work.
We know that gravity, with black holes as the greatest observable effect of gravity, we know that the gravity, in certain situations, seems to really win big.
For example, the reason the spiral galaxies, such as our milky way galaxy, the reason for the spiral, is that all the stars in the galaxy are swirling around, headed towards the black hole at the center.
From all that, I surmise that, even thought the galaxies are moving away from each other, faster and faster, the gravity will eventually win, and the expansion of the universe will slow down, and everything will collapse, (but maybe not all the way into a "singularity," ) and then "bounce" back to expanding again.
And, very important, I truly agree with BestWithoutGods.
This whole process, had no beginning, and will have no end.
I am surprised that anyone here doubts that.
Religious believers, for some reason, feel at ease accepting a god with no beginning and no end,
and they ask us atheists, "If there is no god, where did the universe come from?"
I find it amazing that billions of mature, intelligent humans,
cannot accept an eternal physical universe,
even though, as BestWithoutGods stated so clearly,
matter cannot come from nothing, and cannot vanish, so, clearly,
the universe is eternal.
Any other idea is simply a fairy tale,
Seems to me.
Oh, and, by the way, if anyone wants me to debunk energy, space, and time, I will be happy to do so.
Just let me know.